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postheadericon Dogs called german shepherds were first exhibited at shows in germany towards the end of the nineteenth century but they were hardly shepherds as we know them today being rough coated, short tailed and rather resembling mongrels

Dogs called German Shepherds were first exhibited at shows in Germany towards the end of the nineteenth century but they were hardly Shepherds as we know them today being rough coated, short tailed and rather resembling mongrels. The German Shepherd Dog as we now know it didn’t really appear until after the Second World War.

The breed has grown enormously in popularity and is now one of the most popular pedigree breeds in the UK as a pet, it is still the favourite working breed for many forces especially the police and they are widely used for security purposes.

It is a fine sight to see a well-trained GSD with his handler, working well to serve and protect. Unfortunately one of the saddest sites is the poor GSD used to guard premises often chained up alone in some dismal filthy yard with a lifetime of incarceration and little stimulation to look forward to.

The German Shepherd is a highly intelligent beast who will show undying devotion to his master but he is a dog that needs company and stimulation to be at his best.

If you are thinking of buying a German Shepherd as a pet and you have not previously owned one, it is important to research the breed and talk to experienced owners so that you fully understand what you are taking on.
GSD’s do indeed make wonderful family pets but it is important to remember that this is a working breed and that they do have certain characteristics that can make them more difficult than your average Retriever, Labrador or Collie.

The characteristics of a good working GSD should be firmness of nerve, attentiveness, unshockability, tractability, watchfulness, reliability, and incorruptibility together with courage tenacity and hardness.
A German Shepherd is naturally protective and territorial which is something to bear in mind if you have lots of visitors to your house when careful introduction may be required to assure your pet that the visitor is not a threat to his family.

This is also a breed that requires a lot of time, stimulation, training and exercise – you will never wear them out, they will always be ready for more. A bored, lonely GSD can be very destructive and can cause an awful lot of damage to property in a short space of time.

Perhaps some of the less endearing traits of this breed are the tendency to be very vocal which can be a big nuisance and may be a problem with neighbours. They also shed hair in copious amounts all year round so your vacuum cleaner will work overtime and it’s unlikely that your clothes and furnishings will ever be free of dogs hairs again as well as what you are eating invariably being contaminated with that stray hairs.

The biggest problem with the German Shepherd Dog is the fact that to a large extent the breed is being spoilt by irresponsible breeding by inexperienced back street breeders who care nothing about preserving the breed but only about making money from the selling of puppies, Health and temperament problems are all too common, so it is important to take expert advice and try and find a reputable source if you are contemplating buying a puppy.

Consider first taking on a rescue German Shepherd Dog from a reputable rescue that should be able to give you a good assessment of a particular dog. Remember too that an older GSD will be a very rewarding addition to the family and will be housetrained, won’t chew, well behaved, probably require less exercise than a young dog and will be very loyal and grateful.

postheadericon As you begin to read through this informative article, give each point a chance to sink in before you move on to the next

As you begin to read through this informative article, give each point a chance to sink in before you move on to the next. Cats are born with claws, the same way that humans are born with fingernails and toe nails.

Cats need claws in order to mark or scratch a specific place or territory that they have been in. Humans need finger nails to, scratch themselves or others, or for opening a letter envelope. Cats basically stretch their agile bodies in order to prepare their muscles when they dig their claws deeply into wood perhaps or a tree, and then they pull back from their hold. Scratching is a basic physiological need of cats. To claw or declaw, that is the question!

So do cats need to be declawed? If cat owners truly care for the welfare of their cats, they would have to think twice on declawing their cats.

Declawing, what is it?

Declawing is done by taking away all the front claws of a cat. In a way this procedure is equal to the amputation of all the finger tips of a human being. For cats this surgery is painful and, for someone who is walking on all fours, terribly unnecessary.

Though the recovery of declawed cats may only take a few weeks or so, its physical and psychological effects could last a cat’s lifetime.

The following are the possible results once a cat has been declawed.

Ouch, ouch and ouch:

Immediately after surgery, declawed cats suffer severe pain, though it is quite impossible to gauge how much pain they are experiencing. Declawed cats could be considered as amputees. Cats usually try to go on with their cat lives even with pain unless the pain eventually becomes unbearable. Although they may look and act normal does not mean they are free from aches.

Complications after the surgery:

After the surgery, declawed cats usually experience one of the following post-surgery effects: presence of abscess, feelings of lameness, claw re-growth. Based on studies performed on declawed cats, it has been found that twenty five percent of them develop various complications. The same result has been found on cats who went under tenectomy. This is also a form of surgery that is currently being offered as an alternative to declawing. It is called this because only the tendons extended on the toes are the ones amputated.

Stiffness of the joints:

Cats that are declawed experience stiffness of the joints since the tendons that manipulate the toes retract because of the surgery. As time goes by, these same joints freeze and ultimately they will no longer be able to extend their toes.

It has been thought though that cats really do not miss their claws since they also “scratch” continually even if they no longer have anything to scratch with. However, this act is really the cats’ way to stretch those frozen joints.


Believe it or not, research shows that declawed cats immediately shift the weight of their bodies to the back and onto the larger pad in the front of their feet, away from their toes. The result is still evident despite giving these cats strong anti-pain relievers. If such an effect continues after declawing, the cat will ultimately stress its own joints in the leg, its spine and eventually suffer from arthritis.

Cats who cannot claw, bite:

Since the natural instinct of cats is to claw especially when threatened or scared, in the absence of claws cats are forced to resort to another form of defense – their teeth. Declawed cats that are aggressive naturally are more prone to biting.

Declawed cats have no “nine lives”.

There is a serious risk of death for cats that are declawed. Death could be brought on by the anesthesia they received, or any complications in surgery or hemorrhage.

Declawed cats that resort to biting run the risk of being abandoned by their owners. These cats could then be put in a shelter, and since they turn to biting, the probability of being adopted becomes slim. Usually un-adoptable cats are put to sleep or they are used to train dogs to fight usually as bait.

In summary, cats are extremely and highly trainable to be taught to use a post for scratching instead of common household furniture, rugs or curtains. Though declawing cats is one of the options a cat owner can take, it is basically an unkind and a very animal-unfriendly thing to do.

It all depends on the cat owner whether Kitty is more (or less than) valuable than that expensive Italian rug – the choice is theirs. Understanding this article is a good way to fully appreciate the complexity of this subject.

postheadericon Lasik is the abbreviation for laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis

LASIK is the abbreviation for Laser-Assisted in Situ Keratomileusis. It is a surgical procedure, which intends to lessen an individual’s dependency on contact lenses or glasses. It changes the appearance of the cornea through excimer laser.

Microkeratome, a knife, is used for cutting a corneal flap followed by leaving a hinge at the end of the flap. Next, surgeons fold back the flap to reveal the stroma, which is the cornea’s middle section. A portion of stroma undergoes vaporization through pulses coming from a computerized laser. Finally, surgeons replace the flap.

LASIK eye surgery, which is used for correcting refractive errors, reshapes the eye’s cornea for producing clear vision. The surgery may treat myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. Since refractive errors obstruct the eye’s focusing ability, a patient who suffers from this condition experiences blurred vision. This surgery is indeed a best treatment option. Through this surgery, the cornea undergoes reshaping, which in turn enhances the focusing power of eyes and visual acuity.

The expense concerning LASIK eye surgery is often nerve-racking to those patients, who look forward to vision correction. Cost of the treatment varies depending upon the extent of refractive error along with the part of country, where patients undergo this surgery. There are a number of LASIK financing alternatives available.

Who is eligible for LASIK eye surgery?

A person looking forward to undergoing this type of surgery ought to fulfill certain requisites. The patient has to be of minimum 18 years, demonstrating no transformation in the refraction at least for one year and having realistic expectations about the outcome arising from this surgery. A patient who has experienced injury or infection in the eye needs to avoid this treatment. An ophthalmologist or eye surgeon determines whether or not the patient is eligible for the surgery. The surgeon examines the medical history and eyes of the patient carefully before landing on a decision.

Patients, who achieve a successful outcome from lasik eye surgery may get rid of contact lenses for good and enjoy clear vision. They may then play sports and engage in a variety of activities without the need for glasses and contacts.

postheadericon Saltwater aquariums are a source of pleasure in many homes, and young and old people alike love to watch them

Saltwater aquariums are a source of pleasure in many homes, and young and old people alike love to watch them. These tanks show us a wonderful glimpse of what life is like under the surface of the ocean. There is quite a variety of life that can survive in an aquarium. Plants and fishes are not the only life forms that live in the sea, so why restrict your aquarium by using these two categories alone, to beautify it?

Artificial oysters are common as a release for air bubbles in many aquariums – the oyster opens to let the bubbles out. But with more and more people trying to recreate the ocean floor with their saltwater aquariums, Pearl producing oysters are a special treat for those with home saltwater aquariums. However it is their lesser cousins you will normally find in home aquariums, and understandably so. Did you know that if you place an oyster or a scallop in your tank, they will require more care than any other life form in the aquarium? It is vital that you realize that before you get one for the tank. It is such a let down to see people spend good money on oysters, and later realizing they have bit off more than they can chew on.

Oysters demand a very special water condition. They are not for those of us who are a bit lazy when it comes to maintaining a clean aquarium. Keep in mind, they will not live very long if your tank gets dirt in it often – oysters need cleanliness and care. Nature has a nice way of dealing with this issue – oysters do clean out the water so they can balance the effect, but they can do it only up to a point and no more before it takes its toll on them. Did you know you will have to take special care of their diet as well? Don’t say we didn’t warn you! You need to feed every oyster separately through their pipette upstream. Here it is vital to note – keep the number of oysters in your aquarium minimum, unless you want to spend your entire day feeding them! You will need to give them nutrition supplements as well as a microscopic amount of plankton to keep them healthy.

Some varieties of oyster can survive more often in artificial environments than others. So if you are new at this, go for one of these. You could go for the more delicate ones once you are sure of your self. You will often see varieties like the spiny and the thorny in aquariums. These are such accurate names for these beautiful creations of nature. I bet this article has got you interested in getting an oyster into your saltwater aquarium. Why not visit your local store to see what they have available?

postheadericon There are times when a hunter fails to hunt the deer because the deer could sense the danger which is coming

There are times when a hunter fails to hunt the deer because the deer could sense the danger which is coming. In this article you will find some tips how to approach the deer without sensed by the deer.

I was watching three deer feeding in a field. I was well hidden and there was a slight movement of air from the deer to me. These deer were about two hundred and fifty yards from me and I was waiting for them to come into surer range of my short-range gun before attempting to shoot one of them. While I was watching them, they suddenly stopped feeding, looked in my direction for a short time, switched their tails nervously and walked out of the field into the edge of the nearby woods. I had not heard any sound that could account for their actions, so I looked around to see if I could find what had alarmed them. When I turned my head I could hear voices. There were a woman and child walking along a road about one hundred and fifty yards in back of me. This road was not visible from the spot where the deer had been feeding. Although the voices were indistinct from where I was stationed, the deer had heard and recognized the sound as a possible source of danger and had made a discreet withdrawal. They were not unduly alarmed and were back feeding in the field twenty minutes later. They had heard sounds at four hundred yards that I had failed to hear at one hundred and fifty yards.

A deer’s hearing, like its sense of smell, is affected by the wind and other atmospheric conditions. These conditions should be considered by the hunter who wishes to approach a deer without being heard. Eyesight is a deer’s weak point when it comes to the identification of objects. Deer are supposed to be colorblind. Apparently they are unable to see details of an object at any great distance and they seem to be unable to identify objects by their outline. In spite of this, they are able to detect motion at a considerable distance.

I have stood perfectly still many times while deer looked at me and, unless they detected my scent, they acted as if they were uncertain of my identity. On one occasion, I stood in an open field and a deer passed me at a distance of about fifty yards. He stopped and looked at me for a long minute before he continued his walk across the field. There was no sign of alarm in his actions. He seemed a bit puzzled about me, yet not enough for him to investigate or to cause him to run. I have stalked feeding deer by moving towards them when they were not looking my way and by remaining motionless when they were looking. I have killed a few deer in this manner after they had looked directly at me while I was only partially concealed by small clumps of bushes. On other occasions when I have tried this they became suspicious and left the area.

One time in a canoe I stalked a deer. I crossed a small pond in plain sight of the deer which was feeding on the shore. By traveling slowly and directly towards the deer I created the illusion of a stationary or floating object. By keeping the paddle in the water and only moving it when the deer was not looking, I kept noise and motion to a minimum. The deer became slightly suspicious at about one hundred yards, but never entered the woods until I had more than halved that distance. There was the possibility that the animal was able to detect my scent. This seems to indicate that a deer’s eyesight is not keen and dependable.

The deer’s hearing sense is sharper than that of human. But they could be affected by the wind and other atmospheric conditions. These conditions should be considered by the hunter who wishes to approach a deer without being heard. Eyesight is a deer’s weak point when it comes to the identification of objects. Deer are supposed to be colorblind.

Sometimes it is good to play hide and seek games with the deer while hunting. It is better for a hunter not to be disturbed and make motions or noise when the deer looks at you when they are in disturbed position.